Clark’s particle testing services, combined with our analytical chemistry testing, allow our customers to benefit from one resource for material analysis. Capabilities include a variety of particle characterization testing services such as particle size distribution, sieve analysis, surface area, porosimetry testing, and density testing.
Clark provides these services to various industries including: Agriculture, Medical/Pharma, Food & Beverage, Electronics, Energy, and heavy industry. Materials include: catalysts, aluminas, propellants, ceramics, filters, cements, adsorbents, activated carbon, carbon black, paints/coatings, medical implants, electronic components, cosmetics, nanotubes, and many more.
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Particle Size Distribution, by Laser Light Scattering
- This analysis is an important tool in determining the reactivity, flow characteristics, fusing qualities, shrinkage of ceramics, and many other formulation characteristics.
- The particle size analyze is a laser light scattering instrument that combines He-Ne laser a Tungsten lamp to determine particle size in the range of 0.02-2000 um using the Mie Theory.
- Particle size is measured by means of sieve, where the material passes through various screens. Testing screens available range from No. 325 (45 mesh) through No. 12 (1700 mesh).
- Surface area is measured by the static volumetric method, using Nitrogen. The samples are first out-gassed using heat and/or vacuum.
- he surface area of materials is important to the formulator of compounds ranging from aluminas to pharmaceuticals to catalytic supports and ceramics.
- Single Point Surface Area
- B.E.T. Surface Area
- Pore information is determined by condensing nitrogen in the pores of a material and then calculating the pore volumes from the quantities of gas required to fill the pores. Analyses are usually performed in conjunction with Surface Area analysis. During porosimetry analysis, the instrument does not stop with the first adsorbed layer of gas that is needed for surface area determination. In this case, the instrument continues to fill the sample with gas until bulk condensation begins.
Nitrogen adsorption testing includes:
- Multi Point Surface Area
- Total Pore Volume
- Pore Size Distribution
- Average Pore Diameter
- Micropore Volume
- Pore diameters are measured in the range of 0.003 um – 360 um. Since this analysis requires pressures up to 60,000 psi and uses mercury, not all materials can be analyzed by this method. With Hg Porosimetry, pore information is obtained by forcing liquid mercury into pores by increasing the external pressure. As the pressure is incrementally increased, the amount of mercury required to fill the pores is recorded. This information, as well as information concerning the contact angle, is used to calculate the pore results.
Mercury intrusion and extrusion
- Pore volume distribution/li>
- Incremental pore volume
Apparent Density (by Helium Pycnometer, in powder and other solids)
- Changes in vendor materials or in processing could affect the density of the product. Helium Pycnometer rapidly determines the Apparent Density of raw materials or finished product when compared to a known standard, will indicated changes in the product.
- The sample is first prepared with heat and/or vacuum, then He gas fills the sample chamber and pressure is measured. The He then enters another empty change and the pressure from both chambers is measured. The sample volume is calculated based on the pressures and the known weight of the sample; the density is then calculated.
Bulk Density (by Mercury Displacement)
- Mercury porosimetry is often used to produce measurement of bulk density. This testing requires a number of weights be provided. Among these are the weight of the empty penetrometer assembly including the sealing hardware, the weight of the sealed penetrometer with only the sample inside, and the weight of the sealed penetrometer with the sample inside and filled with mercury. Using this information, the volume of mercury occupying the remaining space around the sample is determined.
Tap Density (Mechanical)
- The density of a material is determined by mechanically tapping a gradating cylinder containing the sample, until there is no longer a change in volume.