ASTM D1293 - pH of Fluid Sample
Significance and Use
5.1 The pH of water is a critical parameter affecting the solubility of trace minerals, the ability of the water to form scale or to cause metallic corrosion, and the suitability of the water to sustain living organisms. It is a defined scale, based on a system of buffer solutions2 with assigned values. In pure water at 25°C, pH 7.0 is the neutral point, but this varies with temperature and the ionic strength of the sample.5 Pure water in equilibrium with air has a pH of about 5.5, and most natural uncontaminated waters range between pH 6 and pH 9.
1.1 These test methods cover the determination of pH by electrometric measurement using the glass electrode as the sensor. Two test methods are given as follows:
1.2 Test Method A covers the precise measurement of pH in water utilizing at least two of seven standard reference buffer solutions for instrument standardization.
1.3 Test Method B covers the routine measurement of pH in water and is especially useful for continuous monitoring. Two buffers are used to standardize the instrument under controlled parameters, but the conditions are somewhat less restrictive than those in Test Method A. For on-line measurement, also see Test Method D6569 which provides more detail.
1.4 Both test methods are based on the pH scale established by NIST (formerly NBS) Standard Reference Materials.2
1.5 Neither test method is considered to be adequate for measurement of pH in water whose conductivity is less than about 5 μS/cm. Refer to Test Methods D5128 and D5464.
1.6 Precision and bias data were obtained using buffer solutions only. It is the user's responsibility to assure the validity of these test methods for untested types of water.
1.7 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to inch-pound units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.9 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
Extracted, with permission, from ASTM D1293 - 18 Standard Test Methods for pH of Water, copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428. A copy of the complete standard may be purchased from ASTM International, astm.org