ASTM D5191 - Vapor Pressure
Significance and Use
5.1 Vapor pressure is a very important physical property of volatile liquids.
5.2 The vapor pressure of gasoline and gasoline-oxygenate blends is regulated by various government agencies.
5.3 Specifications for volatile petroleum products generally include vapor pressure limits to ensure products of suitable volatility performance.
5.4 This test method is more precise than Test Method D4953, uses a small sample size (1 mL to 10 mL), and requires about 7 min to complete the test.
1.1 This test method covers the use of automated vapor pressure instruments to determine the total vapor pressure exerted in vacuum by air-containing, volatile, liquid petroleum products, including automotive spark-ignition fuels with or without oxygenates (see Note 1). This test method is suitable for testing samples with boiling points above 0 °C (32 °F) that exert a vapor pressure between 7 kPa and 130 kPa (1.0 psi and 18.6 psi) at 37.8 °C (100 °F) at a vapor-to-liquid ratio of 4:1. Measurements are made on liquid sample sizes in the range from 1 mL to 10 mL. No account is made for dissolved water in the sample.
NOTE 1: An interlaboratory study was conducted in 2008 involving 11 different laboratories submitting 15 data sets and 15 different samples of ethanol-fuel blends containing 25 volume %, 50 volume %, and 75 volume % ethanol. The results indicated that the repeatability limits of these samples are with in the published repeatability of this test method. on this basis, it can be concluded that D5191 is applicable to ethanol-fuel blends such as Ed75 and Ed85 (Specification D5798) and other ethanol-fuel blends with greater than 10 v% ethanol. See ASTM RR: D02–1694 filed with ASTM for supporting data.2
NOTE 2: Samples can also be tested at other vapor-to-liquid ratios, temperatures, and pressures, but the precision and bias statements need not apply.
NOTE 3: The interlaboratory studies conducted in 1988, 1991, and 2003 to determine the precision statements in Test Method D5191 did not include any crude oil in the sample sets. Test Method D6377, as well as IP 481, have been shown to be suitable for vapor pressure measurements of crude oils.
1.1.1 Some gasoline-oxygenate blends may show a haze when cooled to 0 °C to 1 °C. If a haze is observed in 8.5, it shall be indicated in the reporting of results. The precision and bias statements for hazy samples have not been determined (see Note 15).
1.2 This test method is suitable for calculation of the dry vapor pressure equivalent (DVPE) of gasoline and gasoline-oxygenate blends by means of a correlation equation (see Eq 1 in 14.2). The calculated DVPE very closely approximates the dry vapor pressure that would be obtained on the same material when tested by Test Method D4953.
1.3 The values stated in SI units are regarded as standard. The inch-pound units given in parentheses are provided for information only.
1.4 WARNING—Mercury has been designated by many regulatory agencies as a hazardous material that can cause central nervous system, kidney and liver damage. Mercury, or its vapor, may be hazardous to health and corrosive to materials. Caution should be taken when handling mercury and mercury containing products. See the applicable product Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for details and EPA’s website – http://www.epa.gov/mercury/faq.htm - for additional information. Users should be aware that selling mercury and/or mercury containing products into your state or country may be prohibited by law.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific safety warning statements, see 7.2 through 7.8.
Extracted, with permission, from ASTM D5191 - 15 Standard Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Mini Method), copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428. A copy of the complete standard may be purchased from ASTM International, astm.org