ASTM D92 - Flash / Fire Point
Significance and Use
5.1 The flash point is one measure of the tendency of the test specimen to form a flammable mixture with air under controlled laboratory conditions. It is only one of a number of properties that should be considered in assessing the overall flammability hazard of a material.
5.2 Flash point is used in shipping and safety regulations to define flammable and combustible materials. Consult the particular regulation involved for precise definitions of these classifications.
5.3 Flash point can indicate the possible presence of highly volatile and flammable materials in a relatively nonvolatile or nonflammable material. For example, an abnormally low flash point on a test specimen of engine oil can indicate gasoline contamination.
5.4 This test method shall be used to measure and describe the properties of materials, products, or assemblies in response to heat and a test flame under controlled laboratory conditions and shall not be used to describe or appraise the fire hazard or fire risk of materials, products, or assemblies under actual fire conditions. However, results of this test method may be used as elements of a fire risk assessment that takes into account all of the factors that are pertinent to an assessment of the fire hazard of a particular end use.
5.5 The fire point is one measure of the tendency of the test specimen to support combustion.
1.1 This test method describes the determination of the flash point and fire point of petroleum products by a manual Cleveland open cup apparatus or an automated Cleveland open cup apparatus.
NOTE 1: The precisions for fire point were not determined in the current interlaboratory program. Fire point is a parameter that is not commonly specified, although in some cases, knowledge of this flammability temperature may be desired.
1.2 This test method is applicable to all petroleum products with flash points above 79 °C (175 °F) and below 400 °C (752 °F) except fuel oils.
NOTE 2: This test method may occasionally be specified for the determination of the fire point of a fuel oil. For the determination of the flash points of fuel oils, use Test Method D93. Test Method D93 should also be used when it is desired to determine the possible presence of small but significant concentrations of lower flash point substances that may escape detection by Test Method D92. Test Method D1310 can be employed if the flash point is known to be below 79 °C (175 °F).
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard.
1.3.1 Exception—The values given in parentheses are for information only.
1.4 WARNING—Mercury has been designated by many regulatory agencies as a hazardous material that can cause central nervous system, kidney and liver damage. Mercury, or its vapor, may be hazardous to health and corrosive to materials. Caution should be taken when handling mercury and mercury containing products. See the applicable product Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for details and EPA’s website—http://www.epa.gov/mercury/faq.htm—for additional information. Users should be aware that selling mercury and/or mercury containing products in your state or country may be prohibited by law.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific warning statements, see 6.4, 7.1, 11.1.3, and 11.2.4
Extracted, with permission, from ASTM D92 - 16b Standard Test Method for Flash and Fire Points by Cleveland Open Cup Tester, copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428. A copy of the complete standard may be purchased from ASTM International, astm.org